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Genus Melanitis: All three of the Afrotropical Melanitis species have been recorded at Semuliki: M. ansorgei, M. libya and M. leda. M. leda is commonly sampled in the fruit traps while M. ansorgei and M. libya were rarely encountered. M. ansorgei also appeared to be site-dependent which is often due to small-scale spatial differences in environmental conditions that either promotes or inhibits populations, conditions which are often observed within the forest. M. libya and M. leda are seasonally polymorphic and M. leda forms are nicely illustrated by Williams (2020). A recent taxonomic change has included M. ansorgei within a new monobasic (single species) genus -Ducarmeia. 

Ducarmeia ansorgei.jpeg
Ducarmeia ansorgei.jpeg

Ducarmeia ansorgei (male, upper and underside)

Ducarmeia ansorgei.jpeg

Ducarmeia ansorgei (female, upperside)

Ducarmeia ansorgei.jpeg

Ducarmeia ansorgei (female, underside)

Melanitis libya.jpeg
Melanitis libya.jpeg

Melanitis libya (male upper and underside, sexes similar)

Melanitis leda.jpeg
Melanitis leda.jpeg

Melanitis leda (male upper and underside, wet season form)

leda.jpeg

Melanitis leda (female upperside, dry season form)

Melanitis leda.jpg

Melanitis leda (female underside, dry season form)

Specific genus site links, references and bibliography:

Nymphalidae.Net provides a detailed taxonomic overview of the Tribe Melanitini. Tribe Melanitini (Wahlberg, N).

Pyrcz, T.W., et. al., (2020). Previously unrecognized diversity of Afrotropical Melanitini butterflies (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae):
doubling the number of species and genera. Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 78(2) pp.171-216.

Savela, M. Melanitis Fabricius, [1807]. Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Excellent online resource.

Williams, M.C., (2020). Genus Melanitis. A section of Afrotropical Butterflies (17th Edition). Publication is available from Lepidopterists' Society of Africa website https://www.lepsocafrica.org/?p=publications&s=atb.

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