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Genus Gnophodes: There were three species of the Afrotropical Gnophodes genus described; 2 species being recorded at Semuliki: G. chelys and G betsimena. The third species, G. grogani is found in more montane forest habitat. Both species are sampled frequently, although not abundant and appear to be site-specific, found in the more disturbed Kirumya forest site. Recent taxonomic changes now places G. chelys within a new genus Haydonia while G. betsimena has been split into three allopatric species (speciation caused by geographical changes), with G. betsimena being confined to Madagascar and G.parmeno being the species recorded at Semuliki.

Gnophodes betsimena.jpeg

Gnophodes parmeno (male, upperside) 

Gnophodes betsimena.jpeg

Gnophodes parmeno (male, underside) 

Gnophodes betsimena.jpeg

Gnophodes parmeno (female, upperside) 

Gnophodes betsimena.jpeg

Gnophodes parmeno (female, underside) 

Haydonia chelys.jpeg
Haydonia chelys.jpeg
Haydonia chelys.jpeg
Haydonia chelys.jpeg

Haydonia chelys (male, upper and upperside) 

Haydonia chelys (male upper and upperside, variation) 

Haydonia chelys.jpeg
Haydonia chelys.jpeg
Haydonia chelys.jpeg
Haydonia chelys.jpeg

Haydonia chelys (male upper and underside, variation) 

Haydonia chelys.jpeg
Haydonia chelys.jpeg

Haydonia chelys (female upper and underside, variation) 

Haydonia chelys (female, upper and underside) 

Haydonia chelys.jpeg
Haydonia chelys.jpeg

Haydonia chelys (female upper and underside, variation) 

Specific genus site links, references and bibliography:

Nymphalidae.Net provides a detailed taxonomic overview of the Tribe Melanitini. Tribe Melanitini (Wahlberg, N).

Pyrcz, T.W., et. al., (2020). Previously unrecognized diversity of Afrotropical Melanitini butterflies (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae):
doubling the number of species and genera. Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny: 78(2) pp.171-216.

Savela, M. Gnophodes Doubleday, [1849]. Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Excellent online resource.

Williams, M.C., (2020). Genus Gnophodes. A section of Afrotropical Butterflies (17th Edition). Publication is available from Lepidopterists' Society of Africa website https://www.lepsocafrica.org/?p=publications&s=atb.

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