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Genus Euphaedra: There are 25 species of the genus Euphaedra so far recorded at Semuliki. These contribute to nearly 80% of Uganda's Euphaedra species total (Davenport, 2001), with only seven species not being recorded at Semuliki. Only three species are regularly trapped (medon, harpalyce and caerulescens) but never in the abundance as found with Bebearia laetitioides or Bebearia brunhilda.

 

This genus has been categorised into subgenus species groups (Hecq, 1997) and species on this page will be grouped accordingly. Species from genus Euphaedra are again highly sensitive to forests with good canopy cover, stable forest floor conditions and in good condition.  The following images of set specimens are taken from The Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren in Belgium and portray the male (left column) and female, both upper and underside, for each of the species recorded at Semuliki. There are three corrections from Forbes (2018), two renaming Euphaedra subspecies determinations and one where a species was mis-recorded . The subspecies E. edwardsii langoueensis should read E. edwardsii edwardsii and E. medon inaequabilis should read E. medon fraudata. E. sardetta has been wrongly recorded at Semuliki and has been removed from the total number of species recorded. 

Subgenus Medoniana. There is only one species of this subgenus recorded at Semuliki, Euphaedra medon. This is the most common Euphaedra species at Semuliki and includes two subspecies (males with two colour forms) - a forewing upperside sub-apical white or yellow band - see field images.

medon.jpeg

Euphaedra medon

Subgenus Gausapia - zaddachi species group. There are two species of this subgenus species group recorded at Semuliki. Both species E. christyi and E. zaddachi are rarely seen or sampled at Semuliki.

christyi.jpeg

Euphaedra christyi 

zaddachi.jpeg

Euphaedra zaddachi 

Subgenus Euphaedrana - harpalyce species group. There are five species groups within this subgenus with the park having representative species from each group. There is only one species within this species group currently recorded at Semuliki: E. harpalyce. A relatively common species, but never sampled in abundance. The second most sampled Euphaedra species after E. medon. There is no post-discal white band on the underside of E. harpalyce males and females, which easily differentiates this species from the female of E. medon.

harpalyce.jpeg

Euphaedra harpalyce 

preussi species group. There are three species within this group currently recorded at Semuliki: E. preussi, E. albofasciata  and E. procera or subprocera. The E. procera/subprocera specimen sampled at Semuliki has both procera and subprocera traits as described by Hecq (1997). As with the majority of Euphaedra species recorded within the park, they are uncommon, E. procera/subprocera was only trapped once.

preussi.jpeg

Euphaedra preussi 

albofasciata.jpeg

Euphaedra albofasciata 

Euphaedra procera/subprocera (waiting on museum image)

themis species groupThere are two species within this group currently recorded at Semuliki: E. eberti and E. ueleana. As with the majority of Euphaedra species, E. eberti is uncommon. The image below of E. eberti shows morphological differences with some populations having an upperside red basal patch (not found at Semuliki), (Zúbrik et al., 2019).  E. ueleana was only ever trapped once and shouldn't be too unexpected a record having also been recorded in the Ituri Forest and the Mutumba Mountains within the DRC (Ducarme, 2018). 

eberti.jpeg

Euphaedra eberti 

ueleana.jpeg

Euphaedra ueleana 

ceres species group. There are three species within this group currently recorded at Semuliki: E. sarita, E. viridicaerulea and  E. intermedia. As with the majority of Euphaedra species, all are uncommon with E. intermedia a new record; it was also recently recorded in the submontane Kibale National Park, located around 50 km south-east of Semuliki. 

eleus species group. There are seven species within this group currently recorded at Semuliki: E. alacris, E. edwardsii, E. eleus, E. hybrida, E. rattrayi, E. simplex and E. ruspina. Again all these species are relatively uncommon and this is one of the more difficult Euphaedra groups to identify.

sarita.jpeg
viridicaerulea.jpeg

Euphaedra sarita 

Euphaedra viridicaerulea 

intermedia.jpeg

Euphaedra intermedia

alacris.jpeg

Euphaedra alacris 

edwardsii.jpeg

Euphaedra edwardsii 

eleus.jpeg

Euphaedra eleus 

hybrida.jpeg

Euphaedra hybrida 

simplex.jpeg
rattrayi.jpeg

Euphaedra simplex 

Euphaedra rattrayi 

ruspina.jpeg

Euphaedra ruspina 

Subgenus Radia. There are only two species identified within this subgenus and one, E. imitans is recorded at Semuliki. A very rare and seldomly trapped species.

imitans.jpeg

Euphaedra imitans 

Subgenus Xpetana - mirabilis species group. This subgenus comprises four groups of which two, mirabilis and sinuosa have species recorded at Semuliki. There are three species recorded at Semuliki from the mirabilis group; E. ansorgei, E. caerulescens and E. mirabilis. E. caerulescens is one of the more common Euphaedra species sampled at Semuliki with the other two species in this group being very rare.

ansorgei.jpeg
caerulescens.jpeg
mirabilis.jpeg

Euphaedra ansorgei 

Euphaedra caerulescens 

Euphaedra mirabilis 

sinuosa species group. There are two species within this group currently recorded at Semuliki: E. diffusa and E. sinuosa. Both species again are not sampled frequently and are rare

diffusa.jpeg
sinuosa.jpeg

Euphaedra diffusa 

Euphaedra sinuosa 

Field Images: There are field images for all but one species: E. zaddachi. Unfortunately an sd card full of images was corrupted. Fortunately, the Euphaedra species that have no complementary field image had been identified prior to the sd card being corrupted; in this case E. zaddachi. The species field image will be in the order as presented above.

E medon.jpeg
E medon.jpeg
E medon.jpeg

Euphaedra medon (males, upper and underside, showing differing sub-apical band colours)

E medon.jpeg

Euphaedra medon (male, underside)

Euphaedra medon.jpeg
E medonF (e)-ink (1).jpeg

Euphaedra medon (male, upperside colour intermediate)

Euphaedra medon (female, upperside)

E medon.jpeg

Euphaedra medon (female, underside)

Euphaedra christyi.jpeg
E christyi.jpeg

Euphaedra zaddachi (waiting on field images)

Euphaedra christyi (female, upper and underside - sexes similar)

E  harpalyce.jpeg
E harpalyce.jpeg

Euphaedra harpalyce (male, upper and underside)

harpalyce.jpeg
E  harpalyce.jpeg

Euphaedra harpalyce (female, upper and underside)

E preussi.jpeg
E preussi.jpeg

Euphaedra preussi (male, upper and underside)

preussi.jpeg

Euphaedra preussi (female, upperside)

preussi.jpeg

Euphaedra preussi (female, underside)

E procera.jpeg
E procera.jpeg

Euphaedra procera/subprocera (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra procera.jpeg

Euphaedra procera/subprocera (female, upperside)

Euphaedra procera.jpeg

Euphaedra procera/subprocera (female, upperside)

E albofasciata.jpeg
E albofasciata.jpeg

Euphaedra albofasciata (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra albofasciata.jpeg

Euphaedra albofasciata (female, upperside)

Euphaedra albofasciata.jpeg

Euphaedra albofasciata (female, underside)

E eberti.jpeg
E eberti.jpeg

Euphaedra eberti (male, upper and underside)

eberti.jpeg

Euphaedra eberti (female, upperside)

eberti.jpeg

Euphaedra eberti (female, underside)

Euphaedra eberti.jpeg
Euphaedra eberti.jpeg

Euphaedra eberti (female, upperside - showing subapical white band variation, and underside) 

ueleana.jpeg
ueleana.jpeg

Euphaedra ueleana (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra sarita.jpeg
Euphaedra sarita.jpeg

Euphaedra sarita (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra sirita.jpeg

Euphaedra sarita (female, upperside)

Euphaedra sirita.jpeg

Euphaedra sarita (female, underside)

E viridicaerulea.jpeg
E viridicaerulea.jpeg

Euphaedra viridicaerulea (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra viridicaerulea.jpeg

Euphaedra viridicaerulea (female, upperside)

Euphaedra viridicaerulea.jpeg

Euphaedra viridicaerulea (female, underside)

Euphaedra intermedia.jpeg
Euphaedra intermedia.jpeg

Euphaedra intermedia (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra intermedia.jpeg

Euphaedra intermedia (female, upperside)

Euphaedra intermedia.jpeg

Euphaedra intermedia (female, underside)

Euphaedra alacris (female, underside)

Euphaedra alacris.jpeg
Euphaedra alacris.jpeg

Euphaedra alacris (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra alacris.jpeg

Euphaedra alacris (female, upperside)

Euphaedra alacris.jpeg
Euphaedra edwardsii.jpeg
Euphaedra edwardsii.jpeg

Euphaedra edwardsii (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra edwardsii (female, upper and underside)

Euphaedra eleus.jpeg
Euphaedra eleus.jpeg

Euphaedra eleus (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra eleus.jpeg
Euphaedra eleus.jpeg

Euphaedra eleus (female, upperside)

Euphaedra eleus (female, underside)

Euphaedra hybrida.jpeg
Euphaedra hybrida.jpeg

Euphaedra hybrida (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra hybrida.jpeg
Euphaedra hybrida.jpeg

Euphaedra hybrida (female, upperside)

Euphaedra hybrida (female, upperside)

Euphaedra simplex (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra simplex.jpeg
Euphaedra simplex.jpeg

Euphaedra simplex (female, upperside)

Euphaedra simplex.jpeg
Euphaedra simplex.jpeg

Euphaedra simplex (female, underside)

rattrayi.jpeg
rattrayi.jpeg

Euphaedra rattrayi (male, upper and underside)

rattrayi.jpeg

Euphaedra rattrayi (female, upperside)

rattrayi.jpeg

Euphaedra rattrayi (female, underside)

Euphaedra ruspina.jpeg
Euphaedra ruspina.jpeg

Euphaedra ruspina (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra imitans.jpeg
Euphaedra imitans.jpeg

Euphaedra imitans (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra imitans.jpeg

Euphaedra imitans (female, upperside)

Euphaedra imitans.jpeg

Euphaedra imitans (female, underside)

Euphaedra ansorgei.jpeg
Euphaedra ansorgei.jpeg

Euphaedra ansorgei (male, upper and underside)

E caerulescensD-ink.jpeg
E caerulescensD1-ink.jpeg

Euphaedra caerulescens (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra caerulescens.jpeg

Euphaedra caerulescens (female, upperside)

Euphaedra caerulescens.jpeg

Euphaedra caerulescens (female, underside)

Euphaedra mirabilis.jpeg
Euphaedra mirabilis.jpeg

Euphaedra mirabilis (female, upper and underside)

E hollandiA-ink.jpeg
Euphaedra diffusa.jpeg

Euphaedra diffusa (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra diffusa.jpeg

Euphaedra diffusa (female, upperside)

Euphaedra diffusa.jpeg

Euphaedra diffusa (female, underside)

Euphaedra sinuosa.jpeg
Euphaedra sinuosa.jpeg

Euphaedra sinuosa (male, upper and underside)

Euphaedra sinuosa.jpeg

Euphaedra sinuosa (female, upperside)

Euphaedra sinuosa.jpeg

Euphaedra sinuosa (female, underside)

Specific genus site links, references and bibliography:

Thanks very much to Gilles Faravel (author of Euphaedra (part 48, see below) for updated advice on Semuliki species identification confirmation, latest taxonomy and systematics and also to Steve Collins (ABRI), Nairobi, Kenya for confirmation of species identification.

Ducarme, R., (2018). The butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidia) of the north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Metamorphosis 29, 22-36.

Hecq, J., (1997). Euphaedra. Lambillionea, Union des Entomologistes Belges, Tervuren, Belgium.

The two publications (Butterflies of the World) listed below are available from www.insecta.de and www.goeckeevers.de.

Faravel, G., (2020). Euphaedra, Nymphalidae XXVIII (part 48). Butterflies of the World. Bauer, E. & Frankenbach, T. eds. Goecke and Evers, Keltern, Germany.

Hecq, J., (1999). Euphaedra, Nymphalidae III (part 4) and Supplement 1. Butterflies of the World. Bauer, E. & Frankenbach, T. eds. Goecke and Evers, Keltern, Germany.

Nymphalidae.Net provides a detailed taxonomic overview of the Tribe Adoliadini. Tribe Adoliadini (Wahlberg, N).

Savela, M. Euphaedra Hübner, [1819]. Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Excellent online resource.

Williams, M.C., (2018). Genus Euphaedra. A section of Afrotropical Butterflies (17th Edition). Publication is available from Lepidopterists' Society of Africa website https://www.lepsocafrica.org/?p=publications&s=atb.

Zúbrik, M., (2019). Morphological and genetic diversity of two individual forms of Euphaedra eberti (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). African Invertebrates 60, 195-213.

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