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FAMILY PAPILIONIDAE

Subfamily Papilioninae

A comprehensive and recognised stable phylogeny for the genus Papilio has been an ongoing problem and debated from a number of studies over the last 40 years. The most recent research has created a time-calibrated species-level Papilio molecular phylogeny producing a reference framework (Condamine et al., 2023). From a total of approximately 600 species within this subfamily, there is a global total of 235 Papilio species of which 60 occur within the Afrotropical region. Afrotropical species have been split into four subgenera, 22 species being recorded in Uganda. There is a global total of 100 Graphium species, of which 41 are found within the Afrotropical region and 12 within Uganda. Within the park there have been 18 species from the two genera recorded at the park; Papilio with 14 species and Graphium with four. Being nectar feeders they were never found within traps and none of the species recorded within the park could be described as common and generally would be found within the forest fringes.

 

Genus Graphium

The four species recorded within this genus are G. policenes, G. leonidas, G. antheus and G. angolanus. There are a number of subgenera within the genus, with only one occurring in the Afrotropical region - Subgenus Arisbe. This subgenus is divided into a number of species-groups or clades.

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antheus.jpeg

Graphium antheus (right forewing, upper and underside, sexes similar)

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policenes.jpeg

Graphium policenes (upper and underside, sexes similar)

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Graphium leonidas (underside, sexes similar)

Image by Timothy Lloyd (original posted on inaturalist)

Graphium angolanus (waiting on field image)

Genus Papilio
Afrotropical species are divided into four subgenera: Papilio, Princeps, Druryia and Nireopapilio. The 14 species recorded at Semuliki described or shown below have not been clumped  within the four newly described subgenera.

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nireus.jpeg

Papilio nireus (male, upper and underside)

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nireus.jpeg

Papilio nireus (female, upper and underside)

Papilio cynorta.jpg
Papilio cynorta.jpg

Papilio cynorta ( male, upper (white band) and underside)

Papilio cynorta.jpg
Papilio cynorta.jpg
Papilio cynorta.jpg
Papilio cynorta.jpg

Papilio cynorta ( male, upper (cream band) and underside)

Papilio cynorta ( female, upper and underside)

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Papilio dardanus.jpeg
Papilio dardanus.jpeg

Papilio dardanus dardanus f. hippocoon (female, upper and underside)

Papilio dardanus dardanus f. mixtus (female, upperside)

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Papilio dardanus.jpeg
Papilio dardanus.jpeg

Papilio dardanus dardanus f. mixtus (female, underside)

Papilio dardanus dardanus f. mixtus (female, upper and underside)

Papilio dardanus.jpeg
Papilio dardanus.jpeg

Papilio dardanus dardanus f. planemoides (female, upper and underside)

Papilio dardanus.jpeg

Papilio dardanus (male, upperside)

Papilio dardanus.jpeg

Papilio dardanus (male, underside)

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phorcas.jpeg

Papilio phorcas (male upper and underside, sexes similar)

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Papilio phorcas (male upperside, yellow form) 

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Papilio phorcas (male underside, yellow form)

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demodocus.jpeg

Papilio demodocus (sexes similar, upper and underside)

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mechowi.jpeg

Papilio mechowi (male, upper and underside)

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Papilio mechowi (old male, faded black upperside )

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Papilio mechowi (old male, underside)

Papilio zenobia.jpeg
Papilio zenobia.jpeg

Papilio zenobia (sexes similar, upper and underside)

Papilio zenobia.jpeg

Papilio zenobia (sexes similar, upperside)

Papilio zenobia.jpeg

Papilio zenobia (sexes similar, underside)

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chrapkowskoides.jpeg

Papilio chrapkowskoides (waiting on field image)

Papilio chrapkowskoides (male, upper and underside)

sosia.jpeg
sosia.jpeg
sosia.jpeg

Papilio sosia (male upperside and underside)

sosia.jpeg

Papilio sosia (waiting on field image)

Papilio sosia (female upperside)

Papilio sosia (female underside)

nobilis.jpeg
nobilis.jpeg

Papilio nobilis (male, upper and underside)

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Papilio nobilis (waiting on field image)

nobilis.jpeg

Papilio nobilis (female upperside)

Papilio nobilis (female underside)

Specific site links, references and bibliography:

Thanks to Jean-Pierre Lequeux, Kampala, Uganda for Papilio identification confirmation. 

Some interesting publications relating to Papilio dardanus phenotypic diversity and Afrotropical butterfly mimicry associations:

Condamine, F.L., Allio, R., Reboud, E.l. et al. (2023). A comprehensive phylogeny and revised taxonomy illuminate the origin and diversification of the global radiation of Papilio (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 183.

Bernardi, G,, Pierre, J. and Nguyen, T.H. (1985). Le polymorphisme et le mimétisme de Papilio dardanus Brown [Lep. Papilionidae]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 90 (1-4).

Clarke, C.A., and Sheppard, P.M. (1960). The genetics of Papilio dardanus Brown II. Races Dardanus, Polytrophus, Meseres and Tibullus. Genetics, 45 (4).

Clarke, C.A. and Sheppard, P.M. (1960). The evolution of mimicry in the butterfly Papilio dardanus. Heredity, 14.

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Eltringham, H., Cantab, M.A. and Oxon, M.A. (1910). African Mimetic Butterflies. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Thompson, M.J. and Timmermans, M.J.T.N. (2014). Characterising the phenotypic diversity of Papilio dardanus wing patterns using an extensive museum collection. PLOS One, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096815.

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