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FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE

Subfamily Satyrinae

A large tropical group and at Semuliki there are records for seven of the genera in the Satyrinae subfamily, five genera are fruit-feeders (Bicyclus, Melanitis, Elymnias, Gnophodes and Brakefieldia) while the remaining two - Ypthimomorpha and Ypthima are commonly found in savannah and forest margins.

Genus Ypthimomorpha

A single species resides within this Afrotropical genus, Ypthimomorpha itonia. This species has many characteristics in common with species from the genus Ypthima.

 

 

 

Genus Ypthima

Of the 111 species making up this genus, 19 are found in the Afrotropical region and eight recorded in Uganda. Three have so far been recorded at Semuliki: Y. asterope, Y. doleta and Y. albida. Although Y. simplicia has so far not been recorded, it has been sampled both within the ituri Forest and the DRC portion of the Semliki Valley.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subfamily Danainae

There are  currently eight species from three genera recorded at the park, Danaus with one, Tirumala with two and Amauris with five species.

Genus Tirumala

There are 10 species described within this genus but only two are found within the Afrotropical region: T. formosa and T. petiverana, both recorded at Semuliki. Neither species are particularly abundant in the park and are more often netted along the park's forest margins.

Ypthimomorpha itonia.jpeg
Ypthimomorpha itonia.jpeg

Ypthimomorpha itonia (male, upper and underside, sexes similar with females being lighter)

Ypthima asterope (3)-ink.jpeg
Ypthima asterope (5)-ink.jpeg

Ypthima asterope (male, upper and underside, sexes similar with females being lighter)

Ypthima doleta.jpeg
Ypthima doleta.jpeg

Ypthima doleta (female, upper and underside, sexes similar - slightly larger than Y. asterope)

Ypthima albida (waiting on field image)

formosa.jpeg
formosa.jpeg

Tirumala formosa (upper and underside, males and females similar)

petiverana.jpeg
petiverana.jpeg

Tirumala petiverana ((upper and underside, males and females similar)

Genus Amauris

There are 16 species described within this genus and all are found exclusively within the Afrotropical region: Five species have been recorded from Semuliki: A. niavius, A. tartarea, A. hecate, A. albimaculata and A. crawshayi. As these species weren't particularly targeted for recording purposes their abundance and distribution is not as well known as the fruit-feeding assemblage species.

Amauris niavius.jpeg
Amauris niavius.jpeg

Amauris niavius (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Amauris niavius.jpeg

Amauris niavius (upperside, showing slight pattern variation)

Amauris niavius.jpeg

Amauris niavius (underside, showing slight pattern variation)

A tartarea (1)A-ink.jpeg
tartarea.jpeg

Amauris tartarea (female, upper and underside, sexes similar)

Amauris hecate.jpeg
Amauris hecate.jpeg

Amauris hecate (female upper and underside, sexes similar)

Amauris albimaculata and A. crawshayi (waiting on field images)

Genus Danaus

 There are 12 species described within this genus but only 2 species reside within the Afrotropical region.. Only one species is recorded at Semuliki, the common Danaus chrysippus.

Danaus chrysippus.jpeg
Danaus chrysippus.jpeg
Danaus chrysippus.jpeg

Danaus chrysippus (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Danaus chrysippus (upperside, pattern variation)

Danaus chrysippus.jpeg
Danaus chrysippus.jpeg
Danaus chrysippus.jpeg

Danaus chrysippus (underside, pattern variation)

Danaus chrysippus (upper and underside, further pattern variation)

Danaus chryssipus.jpeg
Danaus chryssipus.jpeg

Danaus chrysippus (upper and underside, further pattern variation)

Subfamily Libytheinae

There are  currently two genera within this subfamily, one of which occurs in the Afrotropical region: Libythea

Genus Libythea

There are nine species described within this genus but only five are found within the Afrotropical region and one has been recorded at Semuliki: L. labdaca. .

labdaca.jpeg
labdaca.jpeg

Libythea labdaca (upper and underside,sexes similar)

Subfamily Nymphalinae

There is continuing research on the systematics of this group and for further information check out www.nymphalidae.net. Currently species are placed within six tribes (Coeini, Nymphalini, Junoniini, Victorinini, Kallimini and Melitaeini) with four monotypic tribes (Kallimoides, Vanessula, Rhinopalpa and Pycina) which have yet to be classified. The two species belonging to the monotypic tribes Kallimoides (K. rumia) and Vanessula (V. milca) are fruit-feeders and have been described within the fruit-feeding assemblage tab.

Genus Catacroptera

A monotypic genus of Afrotropical origin. The single species has two described subspecies, of which the nominate is found at Semuliki: C. cloanthe cloanthe. A butterfly frequented more in savannah habitat. 

Genus Salamis

There are four species described within this genus but only one is found on the mainland, S. cacta. The other three species are found on the islands of Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius and Réunion.

Catacroptera cloanthe (waiting on field image)

S cacta.jpeg
S cacta.jpeg

Salamis cacta (upper and underside, males and females similar)

Genus Junonia

A global genus with an Afrotropical component of 20 species. Eleven species have been recorded in Uganda and of these eight have been recorded at Semuliki. Of the three other Ugandan species, J. hierta and J. orithya  have been recorded in the Ituri Forest and DRC Semliki Valley while J. natalica has been recorded at Moroto in north-eastern Uganda. Thanks to Mark Williams for providing identifying characteristics for differentiating J. stygia and J. gregorii.

J oenione (1)-ink.jpeg
J oenione (2)-ink.jpeg

Junonia oenone (upper and underside, male - sexes similar)

Junonia sophia.jpeg
Junonia sophia.jpeg

Junonia sophia (male, upper and underside - yellow form, sexes similar)

J sophia (4)A-ink.jpeg
J sophia (3)B-ink.jpeg
Junonia sophia.jpeg
Junonia sophia.jpeg

Junonia sophia (male, upper and underside - white form)

Junonia sophia (male, upper and underside - variation)

Junonia tereaM (3)-ink.jpeg
Junonia terea.jpeg

Junonia terea (male, upper and underside)

Junonia terea.jpeg

Junonia terea (female, upperside)

Junonia terea.jpeg

Junonia terea (female, underside)

Junonia gregorii.jpeg
Junonia gregorii.jpeg

Junonia gregorii (male, upper and underside)

Junonia gregorii.jpeg
Junonia gregorii.jpeg

Junonia gregorii (female, upper and underside)

Junonia stygia.JPG
Junonia stygia.jpeg

Junonia stygia (male, upper and underside)

Junonia stygia.jpeg
Junonia stygia.jpeg

Junonia stygia (female, upper and underside)

Junonia chorimene.jpeg
Junonia chorimene.jpeg

Junonia chorimene (male, upper and underside)

Junonia chorimene.jpeg

Junonia chorimene (female, upperside)

Junonia chorimene.jpeg

Junonia chorimene (female, underside)

Junonia ansorgei and J. westermanni (waiting on field images)

Genus Protogoniomorpha

An Afrotropical genus containing just four species, three of which are recorded in Uganda, with all three also recorded at Semuliki: P. temora, anacardii and parhassus. The fourth species of this genus P. cytora is only found in West Africa.

Protogoniomorpha anacardii.jpeg
Protogoniomorpha anacardii.jpeg
Protogoniomorpha anacardii.jpeg

Protogoniomorpha anacardii (male, upper and underside)

Protogoniomorpha anacardii (female, upperside)

Protogoniomorpha anacardii.jpeg

Protogoniomorpha anacardii (female, underside)

Protogoniomorpha anacardii.jpeg
Protogoniomorpha anacardii.jpeg

Protogoniomorpha anacardii (wet season form, upper and underside)

Protogoniomorpha parhassus.jpeg
Protogoniomorpha parhassus.jpeg
Protogoniomorpha parhassus.jpeg

Protogoniomorpha parhassus  (male, upper and underside)

Protogoniomorpha parhassus (female, upperside)

Protogoniomorpha parhassus.jpeg

Protogoniomorpha temora (waiting on field images)

Protogoniomorpha parhassus (female, underside)

Genus Precis

An Afrotropical genus containing 16 species, 10 of which are recorded in Uganda but only four so far recorded at Semuliki: P. pelarga, P. actia, P. antilope and P. tugela. This genus is considerably under-represented at Semuliki, where in comparison, within the Ituri Forest and the DRC Semliki Valley nine species have been recorded. With large variations in seasonal forms and species intergrades, this can sometimes make it a difficult genus to identify specimens. Thanks to Mark Williams for identification clarification.

Precis pelarga.jpeg
Precis pelarga.jpeg
Precis pelargaC (1)-ink.jpeg
Precis pelargaC (2)-ink.jpeg

Precis pelarga (male, upper and underside, wet season form)

Precis pelarga (upper and underside, dry season form)

Pelarga pelarga.jpeg
Pelarga pelarga.jpeg

Precis actia, P. antilope and P. tugela (waiting on field images)

Precis pelarga (intermediate form, male, upper and underside, dry season form)

Genus Hypolimnas

There are 15 Afrotropical species described with four being recorded at Semuliki: misippus, anthedon, salmacis and monteironis. At present there are field images for only three species. H. anthedon is highly variable and some examples of variability at Semuliki are shown below.

Hypolimnas salmacis.jpeg
Hypolimnas salmacis.jpeg

Hypolimnas salmacis (male, upper and underside, sexes similar)

Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg
Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg

Hypolimnas anthedon (male, upper and underside)

Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg

Hypolimnas anthedon (male, upperside)

Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg
Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg
Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg

Hypolimnas anthedon (male, underside)

Hypolimnas anthedon (male, upper and underside)

H dubius (8)A-ink.jpeg
H dubius (7)B-ink.jpeg
Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg

Hypolimnas anthedon (male, upper and underside)

Hypolimnas anthedon (male, upperside)

Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg

Hypolimnas anthedon (male, underside)

Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg
Hypolimnas anthedon.jpeg

Hypolimnas anthedon (male, upper and underside)

H misippus.jpeg
H misippus.jpeg

Hypolimnas monteironis (waiting on field image)

Hypolimnas misippus (female, upper and underside)

Subfamily Cyrestinae

Comprising three genera, but only one of these genera has representation within the Afrotropical region, Cyrestis and then only one species: Cyrestis camillus.

 

Genus Cyrestis

C. camillus is a fairly common and distinctive species, ranging within the forest margins at Semuliki and open trails within these margins.

Cyrestis camillus (2)-ink.jpeg
Cyrestis camillus (3)-ink.jpeg

Cyrestis camillus (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Subfamily Apaturinae

Comprising a total of 20 genera, but only one occurring in the Afrotropical region: Apaturopsis. This genus comprises three species, two of which are endemic to Madagascar. 

Genus Apaturopsis

The non-Madagascan endemic species recorded at Semuliki is Apaturopsis cleochares.

Apaturopsis cleochares (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Apaturopsis cleocharis (3)-ink.jpeg

Subfamily Biblidinae

Comprising six genera from the Afrotropical region, with only one genus that can be considered a non fruit-feeder: Mesoxantha.

 

Genus Mesoxantha

Only one species is included within this genus and this is found at Semuliki: Mesoxantha ethosea.

M ethosea (1)-ink.jpeg
M ethosea (3)-ink.jpeg

Mesoxantha ethosea (female,waiting on field image)

Mesoxantha ethosea (male, upper and underside)

Subfamily Limenitidinae

With a number of genera including Euphaedra, Bebearia, Euriphene and Cymothoe included within the fruit-feeding assemblage, the following genera do not feed on fruit.

Genus Pseudoneptis

Containing only one species, Pseudoneptis bugandensis.

 

 

Genus Evena

Formerly the genus Catuna which was found to be invalid as it was a junior synonym of Evena. There are five species within this genus and all are endemic to the forests of west and central Africa. Semuliki National Park has recorded three: crithea, angustatum and oberthueri. 

Pseudoneptis bugandensis.jpeg
Pseudoneptis bugandensis.jpeg

Pseudoneptis bugandensis (upper and underside, sexes similar)

E crithea.jpeg
E crithea.jpeg

Evena crithea (male, upper and underside)

Evena crithea (female, upperside)

E crithea.jpeg
E crithea.jpeg

Evena crithea (female, underside)

Evena oberthueri.jpg

Evena angustatum (waiting on field image)

Evena oberthueri (upperside, sexes similar)
​​Image by Steve Babbs (original from inaturalist.org)

Genus Neptis

This genus was recently revised by Richardson (2019), using a mixture of barcoding, genitalia dissection and wing facies, with a number of taxonomic revisions recommended. The only relevant revision affecting the species recorded at Semuliki concerns Neptis agouale parallela (Collins & Larsen, 1996) which now becomes Neptis melicerta parallela (Collins & Larsen, 1996 comb. nov.). The record N. melicerta listed in the Semuliki checklist (Forbes, 2018) is replaced by N. melicerta parallela. The resulting phylogeny tree from the revision describes eleven groups. The species detailed here will not be split into groups for simplicity. 

There are currently 160 species recognised throughout the Palearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions with 82 species being recorded in the Afrotropical region. Davenport (2001), records 34 species from Uganda while Ducarme (2018), records 29 species (now 28) from north-eastern DRC with only one (Neptis nina) not occurring either in the Ituri Forest or the DRC Semliki Valley. So far 19 species have been recorded at Semuliki but this will be an under-estimation and further targeted sampling of this genus is required to fully record the actual species diversity within this genus.

Thanks to Ian Richardson for id confirmations and expanding on image details as well as the following information on taxonomic developments for the genus. The image below of N. melicerta unfortunately lacks the identification basal line characteristics (obscured by thumb) which could possibly also identify it as an yet unnamed species. This taxonomic conundrum will be clarified in a forthcoming paper. The image of N. kiriakoffi could also be another species N. laeta (species can be difficult to morphologically distinguish), which has been recorded by Ducarme (2018) in both the ituri Forest and Semliki DRC and is more than likely found at Semuliki. However, the orange tip to the antenna points to a more definitive identification as N. kiriakoffi.

The image N. morosa could also be another very similar new species recently described by Richardson (2020), in a paper presenting descriptions of two additional new species to the Agatha group. One, N. morosopsis is very similar in appearance and can be defined as having 'flatter distal ends of the discal band markings on the hindwing'. These are distinctly more rounded in N. morosa as most likely seen in the image below. However, the genitalia of these two species can be easily separated. In Uganda, N. morosopsis has only been recorded in the north of the country, while  also having been recorded in the eastern DRC, around 50km from Semuliki. So here again is another species that with greater sampling intensity directed at this genus, will be more than likely found to be present at Semuliki.

Neptis saclava.jpeg
Neptis saclava.jpeg

Neptis saclava (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Neptis metella.jpeg
Neptis metella.jpeg

Neptis metella (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Neptis kiriakoffi.jpeg
Neptis kiriakoffi.jpeg

Neptis kiriakoffi (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Neptis nemetes.jpeg
Neptis nemetes.jpeg

Neptis nemetes (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Neptis melicerta.jpeg
Neptis melicerta.jpeg

Neptis melicerta (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Neptis morosa.jpeg
Neptis morosa.jpeg

Neptis morosa (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Neptis nysiades.jpeg
Neptis nysiades.jpeg

Neptis nysiades (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Neptis conspicua, constantiae, metanira, nicomedes, strigata, nicoteles, lermanni, trigonophora, serena, seeldrayersi, alta, ochracea and continuata (waiting on field images)

Genus Pseudacraea

An Afrotropical genus containing 16 species of which 10 have been recorded in Uganda and only four so far recorded at Semuliki: Pseudacraea eurytus, P. lucretia, P. warburgi and P. semire. With nine species being recorded from the neighbouring DRC Ituri Forest and Semliki Valley, targeted sampling will undoubtedly increase the species number found within the park.

Pseudacraea semire.jpeg
Pseudacraea semire.jpeg

Pseudacraea semire (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Pseudocraea lucretia.jpeg
Pseudocraea lucretia.jpeg

Pseudacraea lucretia (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Pseudacraea warburgi.jpeg

Pseudacraea warburgi (upperside, sexes similar)

Pseudacraea eurytus.jpg
Pseudacraea eurytus.jpeg

Pseudacraea eurytus (male, upper and underside)

Genus Hamanumida

An Afrotropical genus containing a single species: Hamanumida daedalus and recorded at Semuliki.

Hamanumida daedalus.jpeg
Hamanumida daedalus.jpeg

Hamanumida daedalus (upper and underside, sexes similar)

Specific site references and bibliography:

Richardson, I., (2019). Revision of the genus Neptis Fabricius, 1807 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in the Afrotropical Region: Currently described taxa. Metamorphosis 30, pp 69-221.

Richardson, I., (2020). Revision of the genus Neptis Fabricius, 1807 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Afrotropical Region, Part 2: Two new species in the Agatha group. Metamorphosis 31, pp 84-93.

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