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FAMILY PIERIDAE

Of the four subfamilies comprising this group, three are found within the Afrotropical realm: Pierinae, Coliadinae and Pseudopontiinae. All three subfamilies have species records found at Semuliki with a total of 37 species being recorded (Colotis aurigineus, Eurema brigitta and Mylothris agathina) being recently added since the checklist was published. This represents over a third of the 96 species recorded in Uganda (Davenport, 1996) but less than the 51 species recorded by Ducarme (2018) for the Ituri Forest in the DRC.

MylothrisBelenois.JPG

A selection of mud puddling Pierids 

Subfamily Pseudopontiinae

Comprised of only one genus, Pseudopontia which comprises five species.

Genus Pseudopontia

A purely Afrotropical genus, only one species has been recorded at Semuliki, Pseudopontia mabira. A species distribution confined to Uganda and the DRC. 

P mabira.jpeg
P mabira.jpeg

Pseudopontia mabira (sexes similar, upper and underside)

Subfamily Coelidinae

A global group of which three genera have species recorded in the Afrotropical region: Colias, Catopsilia and Eurema. The single Colias species, found in Uganda, Colias electo is commonly restricted to submontane and montane habitat.

Genus Catopsilia

Of the two Afrotropical species within this group of six species, one is found throughout sub Saharan Africa, Catopsilia florella with the other species being confined to Madagascar in the Afrotropical region, but it is also found in Reunion and Mauritius.

C. florella.jpeg
C florella.jpeg

Catopsilia florella (female, waiting on field image)

Catopsilia florella (male, upper and underside)

Genus Eurema

A pantropical genus with eight species recorded in the Afrotropical region. Seven species have been recorded in Uganda and also in the DRC habitat of the Ituri Forest and Semliki Valley. Six species have so far been recorded at Semuliki; E. brigitta has been recorded since publication of the checklist. E. mandarinula also recorded within the DRC Semliki Valley will more than likely occur at Semuliki. Colour intensity of males is greater, while there is also considerable variation within species and associated seasonal variation.

Eurema desjardinsi.jpeg
Eurema desjardinsi.jpeg

Eurema desjardinsi (male, upper and underside)

Eurema desjardininsi.jpeg
Eurema desjardininsi.jpeg

Eurema desjardinsi (female, upper and underside)

Eurema senegalensis.jpeg
Eurema senegalensis.jpeg

Eurema senegalensis (male, upper and underside, notice size difference with E. hecabe)

E senegalensis (2)-ink (1).jpeg
E senegalensis (1).JPG

Eurema senegalensis (female, upper and underside)

Eurema hecabe.jpeg
Eurema hecabe.jpeg

Eurema hecabe (male, upper and underside)

E hecabe (1)-ink.jpeg

Eurema hecabe (female, upperside)

E hecabe (3)-ink.jpeg

Eurema hecabe (female, underside)

E brigitta (2)-ink.jpeg
E brigitta (1)-ink.jpeg

Eurema brigitta (male, upper and underside)

Eurema floricola (waiting on field image)

Eurema hapale (waiting on field image)

Subfamily Pierinae

A large group of 222 species split into six tribes, with all species represented in the Afrotropical region.  Four of the tribes are represented at Semuliki: Pierini, Teracolini, Leptosiaini, and Nepheroniini.

Tribe Leptosiaini

A tribe containing eight species, seven occurring in the Afrotropical region. Five species have been recorded in Uganda (and also in the adjacent DRC Semliki Valley and Ituri Forest) while fours have so far been recorded at Semuliki (L. hybrida being a new addition). The species so far not recorded at Semuliki is L. marginea.

Genus Leptosia

The four species recorded at Semuliki are Leptosia nupta, L. alcesta, L. wigginsi and L. hybrida. These are very delicate to handle and photograph in the field, without damaging the specimen and so opportunities for good images are limited.

Leptosia wigginsi.jpeg
Leptosia wigginsi.jpeg

Leptosia wigginsi (upper and underside)

Leptosia hybrida.jpeg
Leptosia hybrida.jpeg

Leptosia hybrida (upper and underside)

Leptosia alcesta and L. nupta (waiting on field images)

Tribe Pierini

Of the many genera described within this tribe, four are recorded at Semuliki: Mylothris, Belenois, Dixeia, and Appias. The four genera recorded at Semuliki are consistent with what has been recorded in the Ituri Forest of the DRC.

Genus Mylothris

This genus has recently had a thorough taxonomic revision (Warren-Gash, 2020) and species can roughly be placed within six geographical zones. Semuliki National Park is located within the East-Central division which includes the DRC and southern areas of South Sudan and the CAR. The Albertine Rift provides an eastern border for this division. There are five clades within this genus and the four species recorded so far at Semuliki are found within three different clades: M. rhodope in the Rhodope clade, M. continua in the hilara clade and both M. chloris and M. agathina in the agathina clade.

M rhodope.jpeg
M rhodope.jpeg

Mylothris rhodope (male, upper and underside)

M chloris.jpeg
M chloris.jpeg
M rhodope.jpeg
M rhodope.jpeg

Mylothris rhodope (female, upper and underside)

Mylothris chloris  (male, waiting on field image)

Mylothris continua  (waiting on field image)

Mylothris chloris (female, upper and underside)

M agathina.jpeg
M agathina.jpeg

Mylothris agathina (male, upper and underside)

M agathina.jpeg

Mylothris agathina (female, upperside)

M agathina.jpeg

Mylothris agathina (female, underside)

M agathina.jpeg
M marginea.jpeg

Mylothris agathina (orange form female, upper and underside)

Mylothris continua (waiting on field image)

Genus Appias

Not a wholly Afrotropical genus with only six species being represented and four in Uganda. So far only three species have been recorded at Semuliki: A. phaola, A. epaphia and A. sabina. The other Ugandan species not recorded at Semuliki is A. sylvia, although it has been recorded in the Ituri Forest.

A. epaphia.jpeg
A. epaphia.jpeg
A. epaphia.jpeg

Appias epaphia (female, upper and underside)

A. epaphia.jpeg

Appias epaphia (worn female, showing scale loss, upperside)

Appias epaphia (male, waiting on field image)

Appias epaphia (worn female, showing scale loss, underside)

A sabina.jpeg
A sabina.jpeg
A sabina.jpeg

Appias sabina (male, upper and underside)

Appias sabina (female, upperside)

A sabina.jpeg

Appias phaola (waiting on field image)

Appias sabina (female, underside)

Genus Belenois

A distinctly Afrotropical genus containing 28 species, with one species found in the Oriental region. B. aurata although found in the Afrotropical region is also found within the Indian sub-continent. Eight of Uganda's 14 species have been recorded at Semuliki, with B. sudanensis an addition to the published checklist. This is not so unusual as this species is recorded both within the Ituri Forest and the DRC section of the Semliki Valley.

B. sudanensis.jpeg
B. sudanensis.jpeg

Belenois sudanensis (female, waiting on field image)

Belenois sudanensis (male, upper and underside)

B creonaM (1)-ink.jpeg
B creonaM (2)-ink.jpeg

Belenois creona (male, upper and underside)

B creonaf (6)-ink.jpeg
B creonaf (5)-ink.jpeg
B creonaF (3)-ink.jpeg
B creonaF (2)-ink.jpeg

Belenois creona (female, upper and underside)

Belenois creona (female showing colour variation, upper and underside)

B solilucisM (1)-ink.jpeg
B solilucisM (2)-ink.jpeg

Belenois solilucis (male, upper and underside)

B solilucisF (2)-ink.jpeg

Belenois solilucis (female, upperside)

B solilucisF (1)-ink.jpeg

Belenois solilucis (female, underside)

Belenois subeida.jpeg
Belenois subeida.jpeg
Belenois subeida.jpeg

Belenois subeida (female, upper and underside)

Belenois subeida (female upperside, variation)

Belenois subeida.jpeg

Belenois subeida (male, waiting on field image)

Belenois subeida (female underside, variation)

B thysa.jpeg
B thysa.jpeg

Belenois thysa (female, waiting on field image)

Belenois thysa (male, upper and underside)

Waiting on field images for the following Belenois species: aurota, crawshayi, calypso, theora

Genus Dixeia

This genus, solely from the Afrotropical region comprises ten species, one of which has been recorded at Semuliki, D. pigea, contributing 25% of the species recorded within Uganda. Not so far recorded at Semuliki are Dixeia dixeyi, doxo and orbona.  The species D. dixeyi has been recorded both within the Ituri Forest and the Semliki Valley portion of the DRC so would be expected at Semuliki.

Dixeia pigea (waiting on field image)

Tribe Nepheroniini

Of the two genera described within this tribe, only one is found in the Afrotropical region: Nepheronia.

Genus Nepheronia

An Afrotropical genus comprising only five species, with four being recorded in Uganda and all four are represented at Semuliki. The fifth species being an endemic of Madagascar, N. pauliana.

N argia.jpeg
N argia.jpeg
N argia.jpeg
N argia.jpeg

Nepheronia argia (male, upper and underside)

Nepheronia argia (female, upper and underside)

N pharis.jpeg
N pharis.jpeg

Nepheronia pharis (female, waiting on field image)

Nepheronia pharis (male, upper and underside)

N buquetii.jpeg
N buquetii.jpeg

Nepheronia buquetii (male, upper and underside)

N buquetii.jpeg

Nepheronia buquetti (female, upperside)

N buquetii.jpeg

Nepheronia buquetti (female, underside)

Genus Colotis

An Afrotropical genus comprising 41 species, with 24 being recorded in Uganda but only seven (C. evarne, C. danae and C. aurigineus have been recorded since the checklist was published) are represented at Semuliki. 11 species have been recorded from the DRC Semliki Valley: this suggests that focused sampling of the grassland and the savannah patches near the Semliki river, will contribute to further species being recorded.

C antevippe.jpeg
C antevippe.jpeg

Colotis antevippe (male, waiting on field image)

N thalassina.jpeg
N. thalassina.jpeg

Nepheronia thalassina (female, waiting on field image)

Nepheronia thalassina (male, upper and underside)

Tribe Teracolini

A predominantly Afrotropical tribe which includes six genera from the region of which three are recorded at Semuliki: Colotis, Eronia and Afrodryas. 

Colotis antevippe (female, upper and underside)

C evarne.jpeg
C evarne.jpeg

Colotis evarne (female, waiting on field image)

Colotis evarne (male, upper and underside)

C aurigineus.jpeg
C aurigineus.jpeg

Colotis aurigineus (male, upper and underside - sexes similar)

C. hetaera.jpeg
C. hetaera.jpeg

Colotis hetaera (female, waiting on field image)

Colotis hetaera (male, upper and underside)

C euippe.jpeg
C. euippe.jpeg

Colotis euippe (male, upper and underside)

Colotis euippe (female, underside)

Colotis euippe.jpeg
C. euippe.jpeg

Colotis euippe (female, upperside)

Colotis danae.jpeg
Colotis danae.jpeg

Colotis danae (male, upper and underside)

Colotis elongensis (waiting on field images)

Genus Eronia

A small Afrotropical genus containing only two species. Only one species occurs in Uganda and this is also found at Semuliki. 

Eronia cleodora (waiting on field images)

Genus Afrodryas

An Afrotropical genus containing only one species: Afrodryas leda

Afrodryas leda (waiting on field images)

Specific genus site links, references and bibliography:

Thanks to Haydon Warren-Gash for Mylothris identification confirmation.

For a guide on how to identify Eurema, Oskar Brattström has produced a useful pdf that shows the differing species characteristics that are used for a positive identification. 

Wahlberg N., et al. (2014). Revised systematics and higher classification of Pierid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) based on molecular data. Zoologica Scripta 43: 641–650. 

For everything Mylothris related one can look no further to the genus specialist Haydon Warren-Gash. The academic paper below was a prelude to his magnificent tome on the taxonomic revision of the genus.

Warren-Gash H., et al. (2020) Systematics and evolution of the African butterfly genus Mylothris (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Nota Lepidopterologica 43: 1-14.

Warren-Gash H., (2020). Mylothris. A revision of the Afrotropical Pierid genus with descriptions of new species. Biddles Books.

The publications (Butterflies of the World) listed below are available from www.insecta.de and www.goeckeevers.de.

Winhard, W., (2000). Butterflies of the World, Part 10, Pieridae 1 (separate Plates and Text Supplements), Goecke and Evers, Keltern.

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