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Subfamily Heliconiinae

A largely pantropical subfamily, with one of the four tribes (Acraeini) found with species representatives within the Afrotropical Region. The latest taxonomic review of this tribe by Williams, (2023) used dated molecular phylogeny as described by Carvalho, (2021).

The Williams review now describes the Acraeini tribe comprising eight genera with six of these including Afrotropical species: Acraea; Rubraea and Stephenia - with  new taxonomic statuses); Bematistes and Telchinia (reinstated as valid genera) and Tildia (a new genus).

 

There are 245 Afrotropical species described within this tribe with 109 species recorded in Uganda (Bernaud et al., 2019). At Semuliki a total of 48 species have been recorded, tthree extra species (Acraea paragea, A. endoscota and A. ventura) have been confirmed at Semuliki (Bernaud pers. comm). The images of species recorded below will follow what has been published in the checklist of Semuliki National Park butterflies (Forbes, 2018). This details 25 recorded species from the genus Telchinia and 21 species of Acraea (including A. endoscota but not including A. paragea or A. ventura) and thus contributing to just under 50% of the Ugandan species total.

An updated taxonomic breakdown of the six Afrotropical genera described by Williams (2023) with the genus sub-groups are summarised as follows;

Genus Acraea: predominantly Afrotropical species with 27 of the 31 found within the Afrotropical region. This genus is divided into five species groups determined by male genitalia form.

Genus Rubraea: An Afrotropical genus containing 39 species divided into five species groups determined by male genitalia form. 

Genus Stephenia: An Afrotropical genus containing 29 species divided into three species groups determined by wing markings, male genitalia form and sphragis-bearing. 

Genus Tildia: An Afrotropical genus containing 13 species divided into two species groups determined by male genitalia form. 

Genus Telchinia:  A genus of 103 species, 102 within the Afrotropical region divided into four species groups determined by male genitalia, wing facies and sphragis-bearing

Genus Bematistes:  An Afrotropical genus of 35 species with no identifiable groups. 

Genus Acraea

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Acraea abdera (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea abdera (female, upperside)

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Acraea abdera (female, underside)

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abdera.jpeg

Acraea abdera (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea rogersi (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea rogersi (female, underside)

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Acraea rogersi (female, upperside)

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Acraea rogersi (female, upperside)

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Acraea rogersi (female, underside)

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Acraea alcinoe (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea alcinoe  (female, upperside)

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Acraea alcinoe  (female, underside)

Acraea alcinoe (female, upper and underside)

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Acraea zetes (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea zetes (female, upperside)

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Acraea zetes (female, underside)

Acraea zetes (male, upper and underside)

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egina.jpeg
egina.jpeg

Acraea egina (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea egina (female, upperside)

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Acraea egina (female, underside)

Acraea egina (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea consanguinea (male, upper and underside)

Acraea consanguinea (female, upperside)

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Acraea consanguinea (female, underside)

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Acraea consanguinea (male, upper and underside)

Acraea schubotzi.jpeg
Acraea schubotzi.jpeg

Acraea schubotzi (male, upper and underside)

Acraea schubotzi.jpeg

Acraea schubotzi (male upperside, submarginal band colour variation)

Acraea schubotzi.jpeg

Acraea schubotzi (male, underside)

Acraea schubotzi.jpeg
Acraea schubotzi.jpeg

Acraea schubotzi (female, upper and underside)

Acraea schubotzi (waiting on museum image)

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poggei.jpeg
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Acraea poggei (male, upper and underside)

Acraea poggei (female, upperside)

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Acraea poggei (female, upperside)

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poggei.jpeg

Acraea poggei (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea poggei (female, upperside)

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Acraea poggei (female, underside)

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Acraea quirina (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea quirina (female, upperside)

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Acraea quirina (female, underside)

Acraea quirina (male, upper and underside)

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quirina.jpeg

Acraea quirina (female, upper and underside)

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Acraea cepheus (male, upper and underside)

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Acraea cepheus (waiting on field image)

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Acraea cepheus (female, upperside)

Acraea cepheus (female, underside)

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Acraea asboloplintha (waiting on museum male specimen and field image)

Acraea asboloplintha (sexes similar, female upper and underside)

Acraea leucographa.jpeg
Acraea leucographa.jpeg

Acraea leucographa (male, upper and underside)

Acraea leucographa.jpeg

Acraea leucographa (female, upperside)

Acraea leucographa.jpeg
Acraea leucographa.jpeg
Acraea leucographa.jpeg

Acraea leucographa (female, underside)

Acraea leucographa (possibly male, upper and underside)

Acraea endoscota.jpeg
Acraea leucographa.jpeg

Although the museum specimens (first four images) have been identified as A. leucographa, this species cannot readily be separated from A. endoscuta using external traits only. Genitalia dissection is required for confirmation. Margin shape and the presence of the white section near the tornus can point towards a species or sex but these characteristics cannot be considered reliable for definite identification.

Acraea endoscota (possibly female, upper and underside)

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Acraea ducarmei (male, upperside)

Acraea ducarmei (male, underside)

Acraea ducarmei (female, upperside)

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Acraea ducarmei  (waiting on field image)

Waiting on the following museum or field images for the following Acraea taxa.
Acraea kraka
Acraea epaea
Acraea parageum
Acraea epiprotea
Acraea pseuderyta
Acraea macarista
Acraea macaria
Acraea pargea
Acraea ventura


Genus Telchinia

Acraea ducarmei (female, underside)

Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg

Telchinia aurivillii (male, upperside)

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Telchinia aurivillii (female, underside)

Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg
Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg
Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg

Telchinia aurivillii (male, underside)

Telchinia aurivillii (female, upperside)

Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg
Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg

Telchinia aurivillii (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg
Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg

Telchinia aurivillii f. aurivillii (female, upper and underside)

Telchinia aurivillii f. bakossua (female, upperside)

Telchinia aurivillii f. bakossua (female, underside)

Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg
Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg
Telchinia aurivillii.jpeg

Telchinia aurivillii f. tella (female, upper and underside)

Telchinia lycoa.jpeg
Telchinia lycoa.jpeg
Telchinia lycoa.jpeg

Telchinia lycoa (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia lycoa.jpeg
Telchinia lycoa.jpeg

Telchinia lycoa (female upperside)

Telchinia lycoa.jpeg

Telchinia lycoa (female underside)

Telchinia lycoa (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia lycoa.jpeg
Telchinia lycoa.jpeg

Telchinia lycoa (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia lycoa.jpeg

Telchinia lycoa (darker form male, underside)

Telchinia lycoa.jpeg

Telchinia lycoa (female, upperside)

Telchinia lycoa.jpeg

Telchinia lycoa (darker form male, upperside)

Telchinia lycoa.jpeg

Telchinia lycoa (female, underside)

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perenna.jpeg

Telchinia perenna  (waiting on field image)

Telchinia cinerea  (waiting on field image)

Telchinia perenna (female upper and underside, sexes similar)

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cinerea.jpeg

Telchinia cinerea (male upper and underside, sexes similar)

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Telchinia orinata (male upper and underside)

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Telchinia orinata  (female upperside)

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Telchinia orinata  (waiting on field image)

Telchinia orinata  (female underside)

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Telchinia penelope (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia penelope (female upperside)

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Telchinia penelope (female underside)

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Telchinia penelope (female, upper and underside)

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Telchinia parrhasia (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia parrhasia (female, upperside)

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Telchinia parrhasia (female, underside)

Telchinia parrhasia (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia peneleos (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia peneleos (female, upperside)

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Telchinia peneleos (female, underside)

Telchinia peneleos (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia peneleos.jpeg

Telchinia peneleos (female, upper and underside)

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Telchinia oreas (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia oreas (waiting on field image)

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Telchinia oreas (female, upperside)

Telchinia oreas (female, underside)

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Telchinia iturina (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia iturina (waiting on field image)

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Telchinia iturina (female, upperside)

Telchinia iturina (female, underside)

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pharsalus.jpeg
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Telchinia pharsalus (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia pharsalus (female, upperside)

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Telchinia pharsalus (female, underside)

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Telchinia pharsalus (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia pharsalus (female, upper and underside)

Both Telchinia encedon and T. encedana (below) are included in the Semuliki checklist. The two species can only be separated by genitalia or first stages but both are more than likely to occur at Semuliki. These identifications have been guided by images from the book 'Biogeography of Ituri and Kivu'.

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encedana.jpg
encedana.jpg

Telchinia encedana (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia encedana (female, upperside)

encedana.jpg

Telchinia encedana (female, underside)

encedana.jpg
encedana.jpg

Telchinia encedana f. dairana (male, upper and underside)

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encedon.jpeg
encedon.jpeg

Telchinia encedon (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia encedon (female, upperside)

encedon.jpeg

Telchinia encedon (female, underside)

encedon.jpeg
encedon.jpeg

Telchinia encedon (female, upper and underside)

jodutta.jpeg
jodutta.jpeg
jodutta.jpeg

Telchinia jodutta (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia jodutta (female, upperside)

Telchinia jodutta.jpeg
Telchinia jodutta.jpeg
Telchinia jodutta.jpeg
Telchinia jodutta.jpeg

Telchinia jodutta (female, underside)

Telchinia jodutta.jpeg

Telchinia jodutta (male underside, variation)

Telchinia jodutta (male, upper and underside)

Telchinia jodutta.jpeg
Telchinia jodutta.jpeg

Telchinia jodutta (female, upper and underside)

Telchinia jodutta (male upperside, variation)

serena.jpeg
serena.jpeg
serena.jpeg

Telchinia serena (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia serena  (waiting on field image)

Telchinia serena  (female, upperside)

Telchinia serena  (female, underside)

acerata.jpeg
acerata.jpeg

Telchinia acerata (male, upper and underside)

acerata.jpeg

Telchinia acerata (female, upperside)

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Telchinia acerata (female, underside)

acerata.jpeg
acerata.jpeg
acerata.jpeg

Telchinia acerata (male, upper and underside)

acerata.jpeg

Telchinia acerata (female, upper and underside)

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althoffi.jpeg
althoffi.jpeg

Telchinia althoffi (female, upper and underside)

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Telchinia althoffi (male, upperside)

Telchinia althoffi (male, underside)

Telchinia althoffi.jpeg
Telchinia althoffi.jpeg

Telchinia althoffi (female, upper and underside)

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uvui.jpeg

Telchinia uvui  (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia uvui (waiting on field image)

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Telchinia uvui (female, upperside)

Telchinia uvui (female, underside)

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bonasia.jpeg

Telchinia bonasia (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia bonasia (female, upperside)

Telchinia bonasia (female, underside)

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A bonasia (2)-ink.jpeg

Telchinia bonasia (upper and underside, sexes similar)

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sotikensis.jpeg

Telchinia sotikensis (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia sotikensis (waiting on field image)

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Telchinia sotikensis (female, upperside)

Telchinia sotikensis (female, underside)

viviana.jpeg
viviana.jpeg

Telchinia viviana (male, upper and underside)

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Telchinia viviana (female, upperside)

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Telchinia viviana (female, underside)

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viviana.jpeg

Telchinia viviana (male, upper and underside)

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orestia.jpeg

Telchinia orestia (male, upper and underside)

orestia.jpeg

Telchinia orestia (waiting on field image)

orestia.jpeg

Telchinia orestia (female, upperside)

Telchinia orestia (female, underside)

Tribe Vagrantini

Within the Afrotropical region this tribe is represented by three genera: Phalanta, Lachnoptera and Smerina. Only two of these genera have species present within Semuliki, the genus Smerina contains only one species endemic to Madagascar.

Genus Lachnoptera

A small genus of two species: Lachnoptera anticlea and L. ayresii. Only L. anticlea has been recorded from Semuliki. 

 

 

Genus Phalanta

Another small genus of six species, two being recorded from Semuliki: Phalanta phalantha and P. eurytus. 

Lachnoptera anticlea (waiting on field image)

Phalanta eurytus.jpeg
Phalanta eurytus.jpeg

Phalanta eurytus (male, upper and  underside)

Phalanta eurytus.jpeg

Phalanta eurytus (female, upperside)

Phalanta eurytus.jpeg

Phalanta eurytus (female, underside)

Phalanta phalantha.jpeg
Phalanta phalantha.jpeg

Phalanta phalantha (female, upper and  underside)

Issoria baumanni (waiting on field image)

Tribe Argynnini

Within the Afrotropical region this tribe is represented by two genera: Issoria and Argynnis. Only one species of the genus Issoria has been recorded from Semuliki.

Genus Issoria

A genus represented by six species, one of which has been recorded from Semuliki: Issoria baumanni.

Specific site links, references and bibliography:

Thanks to Dominique Bernaud, Tahiti for Acraeinae identification confirmation.

The site of Dominique Bernaud. The foremost specialist in Acraeinae - www.acraea.com.

Bernaud, D. and Murphy, R., (2014). Acraeinae of Malawi.

Bernaud, D., Lequeux, J-P. and Ziraye, M., (2019). Acraeinae of Uganda. 

Bernaud, D., Ducarme, R. and Douglass, J. F., (2021). Biogeography of Kivu and Ituri (Republique Democratique du Congo). Acraeinae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae).

Carvalho, A.P.S., St Laurent, R.A., Toussaint, E.F.A., et al., (2021). Is sexual conflict a driver of speciation? A case study with a tribe of brush-footed butterflies. Systematic Biology 70(3), pp. 413–420.

Pierre, J. and Bernaud, D., (2009). Acraea subgenus Actinote, Nymphalidae XVI, Part 31. Goecke and Evers, Keltern.

Pierre, J. and Bernaud, D., (2013). Acraea subgenus Acraea, Nymphalidae XXIII, Part 39. Goecke and Evers, Keltern.

Summers, S.L., Kawahara, A.Y. and Carvalho, A.P.S., (2020). The Effects of the sphragis on male and female genitalia in Acraea (Nymphalidae) butterflies. Journal of Undergraduate Research, 22.

Williams, M.W. and Henning, G.A., (2023). Taxonomic revision of the tribe Acraeini Boisduval, 1833 (Papilionoidea: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). Metamorphosis 34, pp. 35-49.

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